the Netherlands, postgraduate institutes are quite common.
The four mentioned here are not the only ones but perhaps
the most well-known. On a regular basis, 'RAAD VOOR CULTUUR'
rates the institutes. This rating is also accompanied
by the question, whether three large institutes of this
kind aren't too many, something which intensifies the
pressure on the institutes to sharpen their image.
studio 63, Amsterdam, NL
'Dissatisfied with the mass-oriented and formula art education
of that time, the initiators aimed to create a structure
that would meet the need for beginning artists to have
direct contacts with colleagues in a professional working
Founded in Harlem in 1963 by, among others, Edgar Fernhout,
Jan Dibbets, Stanley Brouwn, and Carel Vissier, de ateliers
has become well-known over the years, especially as a
postgraduate institute for painting. Since 1993, the institute
is located in Amsterdam in the former building of the
Rijksakademie. De ateliers is a foundation which is mainly
funded by the 'Ministry of Education, Culture and Sciences'.
The 20 students have plenty of room in the 23, up to 100-square-metre
studios. Technical equipment, on the other hand, barely
exists: a wood and metal workshop, b/w dark room, a video
camera, and - as is stated in coquette modesty - a coin
phone. (1) The administration - one secretary and a caretaker
- is very small. A scholarship is offered to all students,
and an apartment is available for foreign students. If
one chooses to do so, the residency can be ended with
an exhibition; there is, however, no practice of 'open
house' or 'open studio'.
model of 'de ateliers' is based on an intensive master-student
relationship which, due to the low number of students,
claims to be of a more personal nature than is the case
at German art academies, for example. A corresponding
'authoritarian' moment is, however, also retained here.
As opposed to most other postgraduate institutes, the
'students' here do not choose their 'studio visits', i.e.
the teachers available for dialogue. Each Tuesday, between
11:00 a.m. and 5:30 p.m., the students' studios are open
and the present teachers (from a total of ten 'permanent'
and 'visiting' teachers) can decide themselves who they
want to visit and judge, when, and how often. These potential
studio visits exert enormous pressure in regard to productivity;
student absenteeism is immediately noticed.
During the remaining
week, the 20 students are amongst themselves. The house
rules do not allow inviting guests, artist friends, gallery-owners
or art mediators from outside. This 'isolation' to oneself
and one's work is part of de ateliers' program and the
reason it received the nick-name 'monastery'. 'The artist
must suffer' could be the maxim describing de ateliers'
approach to teaching.
Jan van Eyck
Akademie, Centre for Fine Art Design and Theory (JvE),
'The Jan van Eyck Akademie is an international post graduate
institute for practical experiment and research in the
field of visual culture. The academy combines three departments
- fine art, design, and theory - as equal partners within
a common programme: debate and research on the contemporary
cultural condition.' (1)
In 1991, Jan van Toorn proposed the model of three interconnected
departments. Today, this model is applied.
In regard to
their power of decision, the individual departments are
relatively independent from each other. But at the same
time, close proximity and a linking of the educational
offers is intended. Each department has a 'head of department',
two 'tutors' (maximum of 5 years) and 3 to 4 'project
tutors'. The school's management is superordinate to the
three departments. There are 16 'participants' studying
in each department, accompanied by 6 to 7 tutors.
have a 4x4-square-metre studio and access to various workshops:
computer, audio-video, printing, graphics, photo, wood,
materials and, in addition, to a media and documentation
centre. The tuition fee of FL 2875/2000 corresponds to
the university standard in the Netherlands. FL 1800 return
back to the participant in the form of money for materials.
The academy supports the search for a scholarship.
In the publication
'Unfortunately last Sunday afternoon somebody left the
' (2), which appeared in 2000, one can
read about the many years of conceptual reflections made
by the JvE-Akademie. Only in 1992 did it attain the status
of an 'international postgraduate centre for fine arts,
design and theory'. It is a foundation mainly funded by
the 'Ministry of Education, Culture and Science'. In JvE-Akademie's
policy plan for 1993-96 it says: 'Position. It's the academy's
intention to be a venue for those whose practical and
theoretical reflection on contemporary visual culture
is not restricted to accepted values but who wish to take
an engaged stance in order to keep critical action and
discourse going in the face of the instrumentalisation
of (visual) communication by institutions and media.'(3)
In the pubic plan for 1997-2000, the introduction of two
new fields, 'Transcultural Studies' and 'Design and Media',
was proposed. These fields are to traverse the other departments.
For the event
'Untitled Day'(4), each participant in his/her second
year could suggest a guest. Both collaborate for a short
time and then jointly present their work.
After Simon den Hartog, Koen Brams is now director since
June, 2000. In talks between the three 'heads of department'
and the new director, the policy plan for 2000-2004 is
worked out: The JvE-Akademie intends to sharpen its image
as a type of 'research enterprise'. This is to be mirrored
in renaming 'postgraduate' to 'post-academic'.
The characteristic of a research institute is to be gained
by intensifying project work. Only the 'heads of department'
have a five-year contract. The other 'tutors' are invited
for the period of a project. Project proposals can be
made by the 'participants' and the 'tutors', giving the
impression of a form of equal rights. When being admitted,
participants are increasingly questioned about their interests
in regard to projects which within the institution could
have the effect of 'discourse surplus value'. So much
to the plans...
brochure Jan van Eyck Akademie, 2000 S.4
(2) Cooperation between: Museum Het Domain (Sittard),
Fine Art Depatment/Jan van Eyck Akademie and the KSA:K/Center
for Contemporary Art (Chisinau, Moldava)
(3) Policy plan JvE-Akademie 1993-96, Maastrich 1991,
taken from: 'Unfortunately last Sunday afternoon somebody
left the door open
'. The Annual Report JvE-Akademie
1997 notes in regard to van Toorn: 'Van Toorn sees the
academy as an ongoing work in progress, a place for debate,
for controversy, and hopefully for contradiction. It is
a question of not excluding the element of incalculability,
of taking risks with what has not yet received articulation',
(4) 'Untitled Day', JvE-Akademie Sept. 1999 to Apr. 2000.
From the description: 'Each Untitled Day consists of a
presentation by a second year participant, a lecture by
a further guest invited following the participants' proposal,
and possibly a lecture by a further guest invited by the
department.' Asked if he would again organise the Untitled
Days in such a fashion, Eran Schaerf (head of department
fine arts) answered: 'the problem with an idea becoming
a program. I actually intend to do it differently each
'. From a conversation with Eran Schaerf, August,
(5) cf.: 'The students were made into an audience... shouldn't
the programme consist of the participants' research?'
From a conversation with Eran Schaerf, August, 2000.
van beeldende Kunsten, Amsterdam, NL
'The Rijksakadmie is unique in the way it combines the
extraordinary qualities of 'artists in residencies', research
centres and 'postgraduate' programs, on a high international
The structure of the 'Rijksakademie van beeldende Kunsten',
founded in 1870, was revised by the sociologist Janwillem
Schrofer in 1986 for the last time. The new building and
the generous enhancement of the facilities (2) was funded
by the 'Ministry of Education, Culture and Science' and
lent the Rijksakademie its current representative form.(3)
On a mid-term basis, FL 75000 a year (1997) were made
available for each of the 60 academy places.(4)
of the scholarship practice preceded this enormous financial
support: the practice from the '70s, to buy from each
artist works equivalent to the amount of FL 1500, was
replaced by a 'performance-oriented' and 'selective' scholarship
the Dutch government, the Rijksakademie is obliged to
accept approximately 50% Dutch applicants. The rest is
from Europe and overseas. (5) Like no other institute,
the Rijksakademie integrates students from non-Western
Postgraduate institutes invent different names for their
'participants': here, the 33 art advisors are called 'advisors'.
They visit the Rijksakademie at irregular intervals for
one or more days. Three 'facilitators', (they used to
be called 'co-ordinators'), organise, among other things,
contacts ('appointments') to the 'participants'. These
usually consist of one-and-a-half hour studio discussions.
All 'participants' are allotted a studio with name-plate
and telephone. A bank account is set up for them, they
receive a personally-coded magnetic key for accessing
the complex which is equipped with security technology.
Attendance and absentee times can be retrieved any time
on the house computer at the reception - really nice,
like in a company.
The 'advisors' who are artists, curators and theorists
stem from different generations and are more or less established.(6)
This heterogeneous spectrum and the relatively high fluctuation
of advisors result in a flexible structure that can partially
be influenced by the 'participants' as well. Since the
traditional art disciplines were abolished two years ago,
a broad range of communication possibilities and workshops
promote an interdisciplinary method of working.
open structure of the Rijksakademie could encourage a
flexible program. But if one compares the lists of 'advisors'
in the past few years, fluctuation has been rather low.
The institute is afraid of putting the once reached and
publicly perceived status quo at risk. (7)
has partially taken on forms of a private enterprise:
the 'advisors' are not civil servants, but have mid- to
short-term contracts like all other employees. The cafeteria
was contracted out in 1996 and 1997.(8) The future 'participant'
signs a contract (there are no records of study or transcripts).
Films and videos are distributed under the label Rijksakadmie.
The postgraduate commits himself/herself to pay the Rijksakademie
10% of the purchase price, should a work produced there
stepped up its 'independence' from the state and since
November 1, 1999, is an enterprise of its own. But it
is nonetheless difficult to describe its current status.
It is still subsidised.(9) To maintain the expensive standard
of its production and service apparatus and to forestall
a possible cutback of state subsidies, several employees
seek to win over financial backers and sponsors and access
EU money.(10) Especially vis-à-vis their private
financial backers, the Rijksakademie is under pressure
to achieve, meaning the quantity and quality of public
success of their products. On a quarterly basis, a sort
of annual report is sent out. 'Extra' lists the exhibition
activities of 'advisors' and 'participants', even if they
have long since left the academy. (11)
As opposed to
many other institutes, the Rijksakademie attempts to organise
a monthly support of 1250 Gulden (1998) for each 'participant'
without a scholarship. Some 'participants' are sponsored.
As quid pro quo for the monthly FL 1250, the sponsoring
contract provides for three visits, a presentation in
the company building and the transfer of ownership of
an artwork worth FL 2000. 'All one's life', reference
to the company label must be made in the CV, and during
'open studios' the label must stand next to the 'participant's'
name on the studio door. (12)
The open studios
are extremely important for the Rijksakademie. More than
5000 invitations are sent out, and about 3000 guests come
for a visit in three days. In 1997, the open studios were
supervised by a curator. (13) There are special fees,
additional staff is employed in the workshops, the 'apparatus'
operates at double speed. An institution bound to mid-term
financial contracts must inevitably view and utilise the
open studios as a show safeguarding the contracts and
aimed at expanding the existing network between artists,
art mediators, politics, industry and commerce. Because
so many staff members were involved in producing the works
of the 'participants', the open studios are celebrated
like a big party.
(1) cf. info
(2) Apart from generously equipped workshops for wood,
metal, ceramics and printing, there are two film studios,
computer facilities and, since 1997, a digital editing
(3) DM 15000 per student are allotted per semester at
German art academies (94).
(4) Many graduates receive a 'basic scholarship' (FL 60000/2
years), and there are also the 'werkbeurs' (work scholarships)
(5) cf. the statistics in "Academy", in: NRC-Handelsblad,
web site from 10/28/99: In 1999, there were 208 applicants
from the Netherlands, 24 were accepted, the rest of Europe
249 to 21, Asia 50 to 7, Latin America 44 to 4, Africa
64 to 1, North America 35 to 1, Australia, Oceania 5 to
(6) For publicity reasons, all advisors are listed on
the back of the envelope in which the application documents
are sent out.
(7) This fear is true of staff members who are in worry
about their short-term contracts.
(8) The reason being that the cafeteria of the exclusive
academy was turned into an 'exquisite' restaurant. The
chef recruited for this purpose was offered the opportunity
to open the restaurant space, which is attractively located
alongside a canal, to the public on weekends and bring
guests across the canal to the premises on a boat. But
the idea turned out to be impractical. The institute had
to subsidise the expensive meals (salmon several times
a week) for the students.
(9) The contract with the director, due to be terminated
after 10 years, was therefore no longer applicable.
(10) The subsidies amounted to FL 6000000 in 2000. The
so-called Stichting Trustfonds Rijksakademie (earlier
Stichting Intendance) deals with sponsoring.
(11) The chance to 'use distribution to raise the image'
depends on the amount of art produced. Art production
is in a paradox relationship of being subsidised and simultaneously
impeded: the service-providing apparatus of 32 employees
frees one from the time-consuming, day-to-day formalities.
33 advisors perform counselling, 13 workshop staff members
help out during production. If 45 employees, 32 occasionally
present 'advisors' and 60 'participants' all encounter
each other on a daily basis in constricted spaces, it
does demand an enormous communication performance.
(12) When artists are sponsored, the institute conducts
the contract negotiations. In addition, this personal
sponsoring contract, something which in this form is more
common in the field of sports than in art, is not thematized.
No conceptual distinction is made between sponsors and
institutional funding. The financial conditions of the
institute are not transparent and are never a topic of
(13) In 1997, the Belgian curator Bart Cassimann was given
the responsibility for organising the 'open studios'.
'RAIN will strengthen
the exchange of art, ideas, techniques, cultural heritage
and knowledge between artists' initiatives in Africa,
Asia and Latin America, both physically and virtually.
In this exchange the emphases will be on 'south-south'
and 'south-north' contacts, taking into account the 'north-south'
line which is already represented rather well'(14)
RAIN is an ambitious project of the Rijksakademie and
serves, on the one hand, to expand its network of relationships
in the sense of 'development aid', such as the continuing
involvement of former 'participants'. (15) The RAIN project
encourages former students from Africa, Asia and Latin
America to suggest projects in their respective countries.
For the most part, the supported projects can best be
described as small, official spaces or initiatives which
have the aim of offering a platform for seminars, workshops,
co-operations and exhibitions. The former students are
to act as sort of organisers for these projects and function
as contacts for the Rijksakademie vis-à-vis the
other persons involved in the respective countries. (16)
a budget surplus of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs
in the form of a one-off start-up funding of about FL
15000 for each project. In addition, the teachers and
students of the Rijksakademie, who fly to each of the
projects, are paid air tickets to workshops.
also provides some of the equipment, such as computers.
It organises the presentation of projects, documentation,
publishing, and the creation of a web site. This is certainly
a support for projects lacking infrastructure, but on
the other hand, due to this, the Rijksakademie keeps in
its hands the mediation of these projects in Europe and
the option of national or institution-related representation.
As the overall
project RAIN is still in a phase of development, many
decisions are, as yet, open. The various parties hope
to be able to contribute their diverging interests to
the project. But the Dutch ministry reserves the right
to decide on further financing of the overall project,
and the influence of the Rijksakademie is dependant on
this; but so is the existence of some of the projects,
should they fail to find other (partial) financing until
paper of the Rijksakademie, Amsterdam 2000
(15) The initials
RAIN originally stood for Rijksakademie International
Networks. One can imagine that the students participating
in the organisation were not happy with this name. In
this context, the Rijksakademie points out the diplomatic
function the name has: only if 'Rijksakademie' is part
of the project name, will money come from the ministry.
And the ministry viewed the projects more like foreign
branches of the Rijksakademie. Now, however, the long
form of the name is no longer used.
cf. the Email-conversation with Claudia Fontes (TRAMA),
'Project RAIN, the one of the Rijksakademie, is linked
to us as they proposed to build a network with other ex-participants'
initiatives. TRAMA's sketch existed before their proposal,
before I left the Rijks, but with the huge input they
are putting through RAIN we can handle things differently
towards institutions in our own country and get support
here for our own project. For people who decide here,
RAIN made the difference between 'OK, you do it and I
watch you failing' and 'this can be serious, we want to
be there just in case'. If I must describe RAIN, I wouldn't
know what to say so far. I wish it is a lot of good will
to rebuild links with southern post-colonialist cultures
in a healthy way, supported by some functionaries sensitive
towards the potency that could be generated by other structures
of thinking in the 'south'. (It is so annoying, this north-south
thing. Makes everything black and white. Same for 'central'
and 'peripheral'. Let's keep trying to find proper terms
for it.) What upset me at some points in the talks in
Heemstede was to become aware once more of the huge, enormous
gap that is still to be narrowed between wills and a real
thought behind it, a real attempt and need to incorporate
to the confidence of 'central' cultures in rational control
as a tool to develop knowledge, other categories that
maybe have to do with chaos or emotions, or with the place
where chaos and control meet: chance.'
(16) cf. the
concept paper of the Rijksakademie: 'In 2000 the following
partners will participate in the network:
'Centre Soleil d'Afrique' in Bamako, Mali is an artists'
centre which organises workshops, seminars, exhibitions
etc. It is financed with the support of the Prins Claus
Fund, primarily to relate artists from West Africa to
other parts of the world. Contact: Hama Goro.
'Ruang Rupa' in Jakarta, Indonesia, is an artists' platform
for debates, projects, workshops and exchange within Jakarta,
Indonesia. It will begin to concentrate on art in public
space. Contact: Ade Darmawan (in development)'.
'TRAMA' in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is a flexible, horizontal
structure for artists organising exchange, discussion,
workshops and a database. Activities are directed to the
visual arts sector, often in relation to other sectors
like film, philosophy, sociology etc. (A selection). Contact:
(17) A decision
by the Ministry is awaited in May, 2001.
'The institute intends cooperate in this professional
field with universities and other educational institutions
at home and abroad in order to shift boundaries, develop
new disciplines and create spaces for this experiment.'
Instituut evolved out of the Gerrit Rietfeld Academie
in 1990 and is still in the phase of development.
Since 1995, there
are the divisions 'autonomous arts, design and free styling',
studies take place in a project-oriented way.(2) Period
of studies is two years, and practical experience is a
prerequisite: 'Enthusiasm, professionalism and social
awareness are the elements which the departments have
in common.' (3)
for the Visual Arts (HISK), Antwerpen, B
'The praxis of the visual arts is permeated and underpinned
by a plethora of theoretical considerations, originating
from such divergent fields as the history of ideas, philosophy,
cultural studies, the history of art, sociology and positive
For this very reason, it is of great
importance that the Higher Institute bestows ample attention
upon cultural, political and social theory.
has an important role in bridging the time-honoured gap
or conflict between making and thinking, between practice
and theory.' (1)
The HISK is a medium-size postgraduate institute with
various workshops and a very extensive list of 'visiting
professors'. The period of study is between 2 and 3 years,
and is completed with a 'laureateship'. What is remarkable
is that the institute targets older students, as opposed
to many others which accept increasingly younger students.
(1) from: www.hisk.edu/english/e-mdef.htm
in no other city, many postgraduate institutes 'for fine
arts' are active in London. They have bonded with different
scenes at different times. The Royal College was important
for British Pop Art, St. Martin's School of Art for sculpture
in the '60s and concept art in the '70s. Goldsmith College
is held responsible for the rise of the 'Young British
Artists' at the beginning of the '90s.
College of Art (RCA), London, GB
'The College is a special kind of ideas factory.' (1)
With its approximately 90 students, the School of Fine
Art is, along with the Schools of Applied Art, of Architecture
and Design, of Communications, of Fashion and Textiles,
of Humanities (selection), part of RCA with a total of
800 students. Apart from taking a course in the School
for Humanities, which is mandatory for students of all
departments, there is little sign for interdisciplinarity
between the fields. The division into the traditionally
designated departments painting, photography, sculpture,
printmaking (without new media) may be one of the reasons
why RCA has a more conservative reputation.
Compared to other schools, the acceptancy policy is nationally
oriented. For a student from overseas, the tuition fee
of £ 12.000 is an impediment, since Europeans 'only'
pay £ 4.000. The institute offers no scholarships
for foreign students. The working conditions in the painting
department are rather constricted: during the first year
of study, several students work in 20-square-meter compartments
subdivided by wooden walls. In the second year, the student
has the right to use one of these himself/herself. Each
department is headed by a 'course director' and is accompanied
by one 'senior tutor' and about six 'tutors'. In addition,
there are about five 'visiting lecturers'. The students
are only involved in a minor way in planning the yearly
programme. Three times a year, the 'head of course', the
'senior tutor' and two students meet to talk about the
organisational structure - the so-called 'course monitoring
In quite a clear way, the Royal College, independent since
1967, but with university status, points out its attachment
to industry and commerce: 'The objects of the college
are to advance learning, knowledge and professional competence
particularly in the field of fine arts, in the principles
and practice of art and design in their relation to industrial
and commercial processes and social developments and other
subjects relating thereto through teaching, research and
collaboration with industry and commerce.' (2)
In correspondence to this statement, the final exhibitions
which take place in the first half of the year are keen
on attracting a large audience: 'Attendance levels for
the 1999 Show reached record levels with 47000 visitors
in just one month. With free admission and over 4000 objects
exhibited, most of which are for sale or commission, this
year's Show will be no exception.' (3) A similar rhetoric
of competition, as is the case with RCA as a whole, accompanies
the School of Fine Art: 'The sculpture course is now well-established
in its premises in Battersea and is regarded as the best
Sculpture studio in any education institution in the country.'(4)
'The nature and
status of the Royal College of Art ensures that it is
a pluralistic institution where many opinions and skills
are represented.' (5) RCA formulates in regard to the
teaching methods: 'Students set their own agenda. There
is no typical product or house style: diversity is at
the heart of the course.' (6) A student describes the
situation: 'There is, at any rate, an aversion to text,
trash and concepts... There's a curriculum, meaning that
lectures must be attended and a dissertation must be written
by a certain date. Apart from that, it is up to the students
what they do, how many tutorials they 'take' and how often
they're in the studio, but ... attendance and absentee
is monitored, not rigorously though, and commented on.'
(1) Annual Review and Prospectus 2000:01, p.2
(2) Charter of Incorporation of the Royal College of Art,
28 July 1967/ inner sleeve of the Annual Review and Prospectus
(3) from the web site www.rca.ac.uk
(4) Annual Review and Prospectus 2000:01, S.48. In the
field of Fine Art as well, the connection to industry
and commerce is formulated: 'A Saatchi Award of £
10,000 was granted to RCA painting this year, the only
such award to be given specially to a Painting course'
ibid. p. 13
(5) Annual Review and Prospectus 2000:01, p.44
(6) Annual Review and Prospectus 2000:01, p.44
(7) from a conversation with Sophie von Hellermann, currently
a student at RCA, May, 2000.
College, London, GB
'Goldsmiths plays a specialist role within the University,
concentrating on the study of creative, cultural and social
subjects, and leads the development of several degrees
offered world-wide.' (1)
Goldsmiths College is linked to the University of London
and offers degree courses as well as postgraduate courses
in curating, design, drama, gender studies, group psychology,
history, social policy and politics, and statistics.
The 'Master of
Fine Arts' is a special course of study offered by Goldsmith's
Visual which is used by 50 students along with Cultural
Studies, Curating and Design. One can choose between a
two-year 'part-time' study or a one-year 'full-time' study.
In the second case, students have their own studio in
the college. The ratio between British students, European
students, and students from overseas lies by 50%:40%:10%.
The USA, Japan and Hong Kong count as preferred overseas
countries, but it is exactly the students of these countries
that can afford the tuition fee of £ 9.225 (£
2.750 for EU and home). Students from the EU are supported
in their application for a scholarship from the 'Professional
and Vocational Award' of the 'Arts and Humanities Board'.
There are no
departments in Fine Arts. 15 'students' are assigned to
one 'tutor'. These groups meet once a week. They are offered
Goldsmith describes its teaching method as follows: 'There
are also tutorials in your studio from artists and critics,
selected in accordance with your needs
a report on each tutorial; these build throughout the
programme to form a 'diary' of your own artistic development,
and are expected to form a comprehensive record of the
development of long-term concern in your studio practice.'
(2) 'One of the central aims of the programme is the development
of the student group as an instrument of criticism and
practical self-help. Studio seminar groups meet weekly,
when members present their work as a focus for discussion;
each member presents their work once in each term.' (3)
One student describes this as follows: 'The school is
known for theory accompanying the subjects. Personally,
I would say that half of the study time is dedicated to
theory. At Goldsmith College there is the so-called Critical
Studies department. Head of this department is Suhail
Malik. There's a lecture once a week. 'Cultural Industry'
or 'The end of art criticism' are the topics. (
) At the end of each semester, each student must submit
an essay (6000 words) on a freely chosen subject. Prior
to this, critical, contemporary questions related to this
essay are examined in tutorials. The student must always
submit a written report on the practice-oriented tutorials
with artists, gallery-owners or critics, which is supposed
to reflect the discussion.' (4)
In his contribution
to the 'Sensation' catalogue, Richard Stone gives considerable
attention to the influence of Goldsmith College on the
success of Britpop. The restructuring measures in the
1980s are highlighted as the precondition of that success.
This established Goldsmith's reputation as a so-called
'efficient' postgraduate institute within the debates
on art academies: 'Freeze' has been praised for its professionalism,
Thatcherite enterprise and slick marketing; it has been
seen as the result of a programmatic pushiness on the
part of some of the Goldsmith staff; as something entirely
unexpected of British art schools; ... (5)
College University of London Postgraduate Prospectus Entry
(2)Goldsmith College University of London Postgraduate
Prospectus Entry 2001; p. 133
(3)Goldsmith College University of London Postgraduate
Prospectus Entry 2001; p. 133
(4) Interview with Johannes Maier, current Goldsmith student,
May, 2000. In the following: 'I recall a statement made
by the Head of Department Gerard Hemsworth prior to being
accepted at the school. He more or less said... 'We work
professionally, here. The semester is strenuous and after
a year of full-time programmes, many students are mentally
exhausted. But the result is that after this year, the
student will understand how to deal with his art professionally....'
This is not to be understood as a word-for-word quote,
but I gathered from his words that Goldsmith wants to
have a clear conscience when releasing its students to
the reality of the art market.'
(5) Richard Stone: 'From Freeze to House: 1988-1994' in:
"Sensation: Young British Artists from the Saatchi
Collection", Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1997,
p.17. In the following: 'Under Jon Thompson's stimulating
principalship, Safran's fastidious European outlook, Wentworth's
inspirational mixture of the quixotic and the mundane
and Craig-Martin's influential practical impact and knack
of unearthing true potential, the students had access
to a terrific range of options.' ibid. p.19
Museum of Americam Art Independent Study Program (ISP),
New York, USA
'The Whitney Museum of Art Independent Study Program now
is in its thirtieth year, is a unique educational program
for practising artists and graduate students in the fields
if art history, criticism, and curatorial studies. The
program encourages critical study and theoretical inquiry
into the practices, institutions, and discourses that
contribute the field of culture. It provides a setting
within which students engage in ongoing discussions and
debates about the historical , social, and intellectual
conditions of artistic production.' (1)
In 1968, after
a one year pilot phase, the Independent Study Program
was instituted as part of the Whitney Museum Education
department. Next to the 'Studio Program' directed by Ron
Clark, there was the 'Art History' field and a curatorial
program called 'Museum Studies'. From the very start,
'participants' of the last-mentioned field organised several
exhibitions a year. With the move of its spaces downtown,
the ISP spatially distanced itself from the 'Whitney Education
Department' and also spoke in a reserved tone of a distance
to the program. At this time, the director Ron Clark developed
the program to the form known today. In 1987, Hal Foster
took over responsibility for the 'Curatorial and Critical
Studies Program', and two years later, Mary Kelly for
the 'Studio Program'. In 1991, the 'Curatorial and Critical
Studies Program' was carried on by Benjamin Buchloh.
a year take part in the relatively short course of studies
between September and May. 20 in the 'Studio Program',
6 in 'Critical Studies' and 4 in the 'Curatorial Program'.
The ISP possesses no facilities to speak of: the spaces
in the 'Studio Program' are very small, and there is little
technical equipment. Twice a week, all participants meet
for three hours in a so-called 'reading and lecture seminar'.
Renée Green was a participant herself in 1989-90
and later a 'fulltime faculty' and 'guest faculty member'.
She describes the discussion situation arising between
the 'participants' and the 'faculty members' from the
various fields as follows: 'In this atmosphere it is possible
to question the categories and to experience the diverse
approaches, which can call into question previous assumptions
of authority about one's so called domain.'
The foundation of the ISP in 1968 took place at a fortunate
moment in time. Since then, the relationship between the
ISP and the Whitney Museum has increasingly worsened:
'At this moment it is uncertain where in Program will
be housed after this month. The relationship between the
Museum and the Program continues to be one of negotiation
Program functions as a point of intellectual excitement
and of art market potential, as demonstrated recently
by the sell out of the critical studies presentations
at the Whitney Museum and by the mob scene frenzy of the
open studios, which appear more professional, by art market
standards, each year. ' (3) Green describes the Studio
Program as being in an ambivalent state, between 'oasis'
and 'weathered bastion': 'A place to think critically
while living amidst-in the case of the time referred to-the
fallout of Thatcherism and Reaganism. It's important,
as Giroux reminds us, to keep the political in perspective
with the theoretical and lived experiences.' (4)
(1) from: www.whitney.org/education/subnav.htm
(2) from: 'Some conditions for Independent Study: The
Whitney Program as a Thought Oasis or Weathered Bastion'
Renée Green, 2000
Contemporary Arts (CCA), Kitakyushu, J
'CCA Kitakyushu wishes to be forum for communication,
where artists and curator/ critics can discuss around
the table to explore the new modes of creativity and to
prove more deeply the issues of contemporary art as theses
related to their individual concerns as artists/curators,
together with the specialists from the other fields.'
The CCA is a relatively young postgraduate institute.
It was founded in 1997 - in a new building but with an
old format. The 30 students (artists and curators) are
offered a one-year research program. The studios are approximately
30 square metres, there are 8 video-editing stations for
VHS and DV-cam, as well as computer workstations. 'Open
studios' take place in March.
Apart from 'independent
creative work' - the work in the studios - there are two
categories of 'group work': a mandatory 3- to 4-week seminar
taking place twice a year. In addition, there are so-called
'seminars of analysis' in which the entire group discusses
their works using slides.
'In an age where humanities, social sciences and the hard
sciences are expanding the boundaries of their disciplines,
contemporary art maintains close links to all these fields,
reflecting the diversity of society through free expression
unfettered by existing values or paradigms.' ....'It purposes
to establish in Kitakyushu a world centre for contemporary
arts that will generate new ideas and perspectives, and
will network closely with artists, the curators/ critics
and many other institutions.' (2)
An international committee of artists, art critics and
curators accompanies the participants. In 1999/2000, members
were, among others, Daniel Buren, Hans Ulrich Obrist,
Saskia Bos and Klaus Biesenbach. Not only Biesenbach (artistic
director at PS1/ NY) and Bos (director of De Appel/ Amsterdam)
are signs for an orientation toward Western postgraduate
institutes. The institute is funded by the city and connected
to a project gallery and a book production.
(1) from: Application Form
(2) from: www.CCA-KITAKYUSHU.ORG/-about.htm